Dynamic Programming (DP) is a problem-solving technique used to solve problems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems. It is particularly useful when the problem can be divided into overlapping subproblems, meaning that the same subproblems are solved repeatedly. DP stores the results of solved subproblems in a table (usually an array or a matrix) to avoid redundant computations and improve efficiency.

Here are some key concepts and characteristics of dynamic programming:

**Optimal Substructure**: Dynamic programming relies on the principle of optimal substructure, which means that the optimal solution to a larger problem can be constructed from the optimal solutions of its smaller subproblems. In other words, if we can solve the smaller subproblems optimally, we can construct the optimal solution for the larger problem.**Memoization or Tabulation**: Dynamic programming can be implemented using either memoization (top-down) or tabulation (bottom-up) approaches:**Memoization**: In this approach, we store the results of solved subproblems in a data structure (often a dictionary or an array) to avoid redundant computations. When a subproblem is encountered again, we retrieve its solution from the data structure rather than recomputing it.**Tabulation**: In this approach, we iteratively build the solutions to subproblems from the bottom up, starting with the smallest subproblems and progressively solving larger subproblems based on the solutions of smaller ones. The solutions are stored in a table (usually an array or a matrix) until we reach the final solution to the original problem.

**Overlapping Subproblems**: Dynamic programming is particularly effective when the problem can be divided into overlapping subproblems, meaning that the same subproblems are solved multiple times during the computation. By storing the results of solved subproblems, dynamic programming avoids redundant computations and improves efficiency.**Examples**: Dynamic programming is commonly used to solve a variety of optimization problems, including:- Finding the shortest/longest path in a graph (e.g., Dijkstra’s algorithm, Bellman-Ford algorithm)
- Finding the optimal sequence of decisions in a decision-making problem (e.g., knapsack problem, coin change problem)
- Computing the nth Fibonacci number efficiently
- String manipulation problems (e.g., edit distance, longest common subsequence)

**Time and Space Complexity**: The time and space complexity of a dynamic programming solution depends on the problem being solved and the specific implementation (memoization vs. tabulation). In general, the time complexity is determined by the number of subproblems and the time complexity of solving each subproblem, while the space complexity is determined by the size of the table used to store the results of solved subproblems.

In summary, dynamic programming is a powerful problem-solving technique that efficiently solves problems with optimal substructure and overlapping subproblems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems and storing the results to avoid redundant computations. It is widely used in various domains, including computer science, operations research, and artificial intelligence.